Fentanyl and Horse Tranquilizer: The Rise of Tranq Dope
The DEA recently warned about the growing use of “tranq dope,” a new street drug made from fentanyl and xylazine. Fentanyl is a powerful synthetic opioid used medically for pain relief but also commonly used illicitly for its intense euphoric effects, and it is sold on the street. Humans sometimes abuse Xylazine, a horse tranquilizer for its sedative and hallucinogenic properties. The two drugs are now commonly sold on the street, primarily in urban areas, under the name “tranq dope.” And while it’s not a hugely popular drug, the combination still manages to cause overdoses. Many people who take tranq dope don’t know they’re taking it. Usually, they think they're taking fentanyl or another opioid.
What Are the Effects of Tranq Dope?
When combined, fentanyl and xylazine can produce various effects, including sedation, respiratory depression, and altered perception. Users may experience euphoria followed by heavy sedation. The combination can increase the risk of overdose, as both drugs can depress the central nervous system, leading to slowed or stopped breathing, coma, and death.
Tranq dope, or specifically, the xylazine used in the street drug, has also been known to give its users ulcers. (Xylazine has never been tested on humans.)
People who use tranq dope are also gambling with addiction. Both drugs are highly addictive, leaving some users hooked after the first high. The dangers associated with developing a substance use disorder from using fentanyl and xylazine are significant. Both drugs can quickly lead to physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms when use is stopped. The risk of overdose and other health complications increases with prolonged or heavy use.
Symptoms of Tranq Dope Use
The symptoms of intoxication from a drug like tranq dope (a combination of fentanyl and xylazine) can vary depending on the individual's tolerance level, the amount consumed, and other factors such as the purity and potency of the drug. However, some common signs and symptoms of intoxication from opioids and sedatives like these include:
- Respiratory depression, i.e., slowed breathing.
- Pinpoint pupils
- Extreme drowsiness or sedation
- Confusion or disorientation
- Nausea and vomiting
- Slurred speech
- Impaired coordination or motor function
- Low blood pressure and slow heart rate
- Bluish skin or lips due to lack of oxygen
- Coma or unconsciousness
Most people who take tranq dope will have overdose symptoms like those listed above. An overdose is a medical emergency and the best way to handle it is by calling 911 and administering Narcan.
Narcan aka naloxone, doesn’t always help with tranq dope overdoses because the xylazine is a sedative, not an opioid. However, Narcan does help reverse opioid intoxication, which can contribute to overdoses. Carrying Narcan can help reverse opioid overdoses.
Using "tranq dope" or any other illegal drug can have serious health consequences and be potentially fatal. Even long-term drug users have overdosed from tranq dope because of its intensity. If you or someone you know is experiencing any of the symptoms of tranq dope intoxication, it is important to seek medical attention. Misusing any mind-altering substance is potentially dangerous.
Remembering that xylazine was meant for much larger animals than humans is important. It’s a horse tranquilizer and was not meant to be used recreationally. It can be very dangerous.
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Xylazine, a drug called “Tranq dope”, is being found more frequently in drug seizures in San Diego. For the people who use this drug, there are new dangers. It’s often found in fentanyl and is also used as an additive in other opioids like heroin. It’s a disturbing new challenge for people trying to overcome opioid use disorder.
Xylazine Is Found in Local Drug Seizures
In recent years, xylazine has been found in large drug seizures across the US. Usually, it is added to drugs such as heroin or Oxy. While few overdoses on the West Coast have detected the drug, San Diego authorities say xylazine has been found in seized drugs 23 times in the last two fiscal years between San Diego and Imperial counties. While this isn’t indicative of widespread use, it’s a growing pattern that concerns authorities.
On the East Coast, including Pennsylvania and Rhode Island, xylazine has quickly established itself as a drug of concern, added to drugs like fentanyl to create a more substantial buzz. Just like fentanyl, it’s being added to other drugs without people knowing. More than 40% of street drug samples tested in Rhode Island contained xylazine, according to recent research.
What Is Xylazine?
Xylazine is a drug that has never been approved for human use. Its main purpose is the sedation of large animals such as horses. It is technically a muscle relaxant for horses. In the past few years, the drug has been making major headway on the East Coast, where it is added to other drugs. It has been found in heroin, fentanyl, and cocaine.
The sedation caused by it can lead to an overdose death. If a person who has taken fentanyl also has taken xylazine, it may be much harder to reverse the overdose. Naloxone, an opioid-overdose reversal drug, does not work in reversing xylazine toxicity. The person who overdoses may have the opioids reversed but not wake up. It can cause coma and death when a person overdoses on it.
The Dangers of Xylazine, aka Tranq Dope
Xylazine is a drug that is still being understood in the medical community. There are a few things that the DEA has told medical providers about it, such as the fact that the “high” starts within minutes and lasts for hours.
Inside a person’s body, it relaxes muscles by decreasing the release of norepinephrine and dopamine in the central nervous system. It has a profoundly sedating effect.
People high on xylazine may experience blurred vision, low blood pressure, and sleepiness/drowsiness/nodding out. It can cause hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and can be dangerous for people with medical conditions affected by blood sugar.
Xylazine can cause skin disease. People often end up with painful, easily infected skin ulcers when they’ve taken a drug containing it. The wound usually isn’t in the same place they injected it and can still occur if they didn’t inject it, making it a hazard for all accidental users.
On the East Coast, especially in places like Pennsylvania, where xylazine use has become endemic, users have become addicted to the drug. This means they only seek out opioids containing it. When they decide to get sober, this adds an extra challenge because they will typically experience withdrawal symptoms that Medication-Assisted Treatment can’t suppress. Treatment centers are still learning to cope with the challenge but are ready to help anyone who wants to get sober, regardless of the challenges. Medications still exist to help minimize withdrawal symptoms.
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Many people can stay sober in recovery with the help of a treatment program and support system. Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a particularly insidious disorder. People who need help with OUD usually benefit from detox, treatment, and sometimes Medication-Assisted Treatment. Relapse among opioid users is common, sadly. But relapse can also be part of a success story, too. Getting back up and staying in recovery is an option.
People with OUD get sober and start their recovery journey every day. For those new to recovery, relapse can still be an issue. Fentanyl poses serious challenges for people who may relapse.
Opioid Use Disorder and Fentanyl
Opioid use disorder is a disorder of the brain. When the brain is deprived of opioids, a person who uses them will experience cravings and withdrawal symptoms. People with access to Medication-Assisted Treatment typically experience minimal symptoms, making their sobriety success rates higher.
People with opioid use disorder often use different opioids, ranging from heroin to morphine. Fentanyl, however, is a drug that is more dangerous than morphine. It can be 50 to 100 times stronger than morphine and has a high overdose fatality rate.
Opioids are dangerous enough because they are so addictive. When people use one dosage for a period, they grow tolerance and need more drugs to get the same effects. With fentanyl, this can mean certain death. Fentanyl is responsible for up to 80% of opioid overdose deaths. Much of it is made by drug dealers in a garage or lab, and there are no quality or safety checks.
People who use other drugs may still end up using fentanyl. The DEA has said that 26% of trafficked pills, often purported to be something else, contain a deadly amount of fentanyl.
Fentanyl is a dangerous narcotic, and an opioid-naïve user can accidentally overdose when digesting even a tiny amount.
Fentanyl and Other Opioid Use
Many people with opioid use disorder start taking drugs like Oxycontin and later take morphine or heroin as their supply dwindles. The pandemic also caused supply chain issues for the world of illegal narcotics. Because of this, people who were addicted to one type of opioid sometimes had to settle for another drug that they may not have been familiar with.
For many people who are addicted to opioids, it’s challenging to quit. If a person who uses Percocet or another less potent opioid switches to fentanyl suddenly, their body may not be able to handle it. Fentanyl, when mixed with other drugs, can also have an exaggerated effect. In both cases, a person’s breathing and pulse may slow. If they stop breathing, they will die.
Narcan, an opioid-overdose reversal drug, is an essential tool that can save lives. People who have ingested deadly amounts of fentanyl often need multiple canisters of the drug to help reverse an overdose. They also need to be monitored in the hospital.
Relapse, Opioid Use Disorder, and Fentanyl Dangers
Relapse is often a part of a person’s recovery journey. That’s only true, however, if the addicted person is lucky enough to make it back to recovery. People who relapse on drugs have higher overdose death rates. It’s not always an easy journey back to sobriety for some people.
People who overdose on drugs often try to go back to the amount of drugs they were doing when they got sober. However, when the drug a person is using is an opioid, this can be a deadly lapse in judgment. This is true for people who use other drugs, such as cocaine, that can also be spiked with deadly fentanyl.
Many people in the US who use drugs remain unaware of the dangers of fentanyl-tainted drugs. As a result, it’s becoming a danger to anyone who uses drugs recreationally or buys them from illicit sources. More education and prevention efforts are needed from a public health perspective.
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Fentanyl is a dangerous public health hazard across America, becoming ubiquitous as an additive to street drugs. People who use Molly, crystal meth, and even marijuana may encounter the drug accidentally. Illicit drug users are not always careful, especially those who use drugs they consider "light" or recreational. While fentanyl is everywhere, not everyone who uses illicit drugs knows about it. This means many unsuspecting users risk being killed by the drugs they consume. Sadly, it's happening across the age spectrum, from high school to the elderly.
Fentanyl Overdoses, COVID-19 as Parallel Crises
Since the pandemic's beginning in 2020, more than 165,000 people have died from opioid overdoses. Over a million people have died from COVID-19. Because of this, three years of life expectancy has been lost among Americans collectively.
Now more than ever, fentanyl is a problem. It's become a common additive to street drugs not generally associated with opioids. Many people think they are taking party drugs or even stimulants like cocaine or crystal meth, only to be exposed to a toxic dose of fentanyl. Some of them overdose. Others may become addicted. Fentanyl is a potent drug, 50-100 times stronger than morphine. But it has also become a favorite among opioid users in California, especially in San Francisco's Tenderloin district.
With fentanyl use spiraling out of control, so are the opioid deaths among specific populations. Opioid overdoses among Black and BIPOC adults are increasing disproportionately in some parts of the country. In other parts of the country, such as California and Florida, a more significant proportion of people dying from overdoses are White. And the ages of the overdose victims tend to be younger adults, with almost 60% of OD deaths younger than 45 years old. However, no matter the demographics, it appears that fentanyl is at fault.
Counterfeit Drugs Also Driving Fentanyl OD Trends
Counterfeit pills have become such a problem that Los Angeles has created an entire campaign surrounding counterfeit pills. The slogan for the campaign is "Bad meds kill real people." The campaign aims to educate, prevent, and enforce the law regarding counterfeit pills that could be made from fentanyl.
"The manufacturers of these counterfeit medicines only care about making money at the expense of our most vulnerable communities and community members," Los Angeles County Sheriff Robert Luna said at a press conference this week. "These medicines contain no active pharmaceutical ingredients." Instead, the medications often contain a deadly dose of fentanyl.
Streety drugs that have been found that contain fentanyl include marijuana, cocaine, crystal meth, Molly/MDMA, LSD, Adderall, and cocaine.
Preventing Fentanyl Overdoses Is a Community Effort
Harm reduction and making treatment available are essential components of keeping people safe in the community. For example, harm reduction programs can campaign for public spaces such as libraries, community centers, and schools to carry Narcan, the opioid overdose reversal drug.
Recovery is also an option for people who use substances. A treatment program, including Medication-Assisted Treatment, can also help people quit taking risks and get sober for the long term. Sobriety has many advantages for people with substance abuse disorder, including better health and peace of mind.
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Coping with the youth fentanyl overdose crisis has been scary. California has experienced a flurry of fentanyl-related overdoses within high schools. The dangers are real enough tschoolshool are going to be required to keep Naloxone, the opioid reversal drug, on hand by law. This new law aims to tackle the epidemic of fentanyl overdoses.
California recently passed Assembly Bill 19, requiring schools to keep the lifesaving drug naloxone on hand in case of accidental fentanyl overdoses. Unfortunately, high schools around the country have been experiencing this. In October, a student overdosed at a Los Angeles school during regular class hours. A few weeks later, Prince George's County, across the US, Maryland suffered a string of overdoses in public high schools.
California Needs To Cope With Fentanyl Influx
California, in its quest to slow and end the opioid epidemic, is trying to tackle every angle. The new law would require schools in California to have at least two doses of emergency drugs such as a naloxone inhaler or canister. However, two doses may not be enough if a student overdoses on pure fentanyl. Most students who have overdosed don't even realize that their drug could be tainted, and their bodies can't handle
Fentanyl has been found in all street drugs, from cocaine and meth to Oxy and heroin. However, prevention of overdoses starts with education, and there seems to be a deficit when it comes to kids understanding the dangers of tainted street drugs.
Getting Naloxone for Fentanyl Overdoses into the Schools
No one wants to think of schools as a place where young possessing drugs. But that has always been the reality, regardless of the measures schools and local law enforcement take to prevent it. Many students who overdose don't know what they are taking- California is flush with fentanyl and counterfeit pills.
Schools are a place where drug education and mitigation can take place. But they are also where kids sell and swap drugs in their spare time. Adding naloxone to schools to prevent overdoses was a bipartisan measure with little opposition. The issue will come down to funding and costs. Fentanyl can be costly to keep in stock.
California has had trouble funding other programs that help with opioid use disorder. There have been wait lists for supplies of naloxone, an opioid-overdose reversal drug that can help save lives. It's recommended that anyone who uses opioids or takes them regularly should keep a supply of Naloxone on hand in case of accidental overdose. This means that schools will havesavekeep a steady supply and money will be needed.
Which Schools Need To Prevent Fentanyl Overdoses?
Fentanyl is a threat to all high schools and junior high schools. Young people frequently experiment with drugs without knowing the hazards. Naloxone will be required on all of the more than 10,000 K-12 campuses in California once the bill is signed into law. Implementation would begin with middle and high schools.
Some larger school districts in Los Angeles, Sacramento, and Fresno already stock naloxone, but for the plan to succeed, the state must fund the initiative. Naloxone can be expensive, especially when it needs restocking.
Legislators also want to be able to offer schools naloxone training, opioid abuse education, and fentanyl education. Many young people don't know about the dangers of street drugs when it comes to fentanyl. Adding education to student health classes can help save lives.
Living Substance-Free in San Diego
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Saul Caro, a San Diego resident, convicted of selling fentanyl to a man who subsequently overdosed, pleaded guilty to providing the fentanyl on June 1, 2022. At his sentencing hearing, more details of the case were revealed, showing that he was worried about the potency of the fentanyl he had acquired. The jury gave him 15 years.
Caro Knew Fentanyl He Sold Was Deadly
When Caro pleaded guilty on June 1, 2022, he admitted that he sold the highly potent fentanyl to a man the court recorder identified only as MS. Two days later, M.S. was dead. The victim, investigators discovered, had been worried about the potency of the drugs he had previously acquired from Caro. Not only did he think the fentanyl was too potent, but he told Caro that he needed to warn people about it. Caro lied, telling the victim he was. “Yeah thanks otherwise would have been bad news for me lol” (sic) the victim replied.
In November of that same year, the victim again contacted Caro and told him he was worried that the drugs had been altered somehow. The side effect, according to the texts from M.S., said it made his heart “slam.” “Ugh why the hell did they have to put that sh-- in here and ruin it!” he texted Caro. “He told me to be careful cuz its strong,” Caro replied.
Caro continued to supply drugs to the victim and others for months before M.S.’s death. The text messages showed that other drugs could have been mixed into the fentanyl. MS, an experienced opioid user, was uncomfortable with the side effects. Yet the victim has an opioid use disorder and continued buying drugs. Caro continued to sell the drugs even though he likely knew they could be deadly.
“The defendant chose to disregard the significant risk associated with selling fentanyl and other drugs,” said U.S. Attorney Randy Grossman. “His choices had severe consequences for a family that lost a beloved son and brother. The driving factor for all of us in law enforcement is the human toll that fentanyl is taking. We see the grief and destruction in person every day. We will continue to seek justice for every victim.”
Evidence In Fentanyl Overdose Case
The prosecution had much tangible evidence, enough that Caro pleaded guilty on June 1, 2022. He agreed that he sold powdered fentanyl, which led to the death of one of his customers. When they arrested Caro, he had a bag of powder with a greenish tint in his pants, which tested positive for fentanyl. In addition, when they searched his house, they found several guns, ammunition, other drugs, and drug paraphernalia.
Many cases like this have been going forward across the country, and the U.S. continues to battle the opioid epidemic. Opioids have been a leading cause of death in the United States in recent years. Over 100,000 people died from opioid-related overdoses last year, with most of the deaths involving fentanyl.
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Medication-Assisted Treatment is considered the gold standard of treatment for opioid use disorder. Experts say the medication, alongside appropriate treatment, and peer support groups is backed by science. MAT can help individuals begin to live substance-free while quelling withdrawal symptoms and cravings. But how well does it work for people who use fentanyl, a drug that is 50 to 100 times the potency of morphine?
Opioid Use Disorder and Fentanyl
Fentanyl is a highly potent drug that is typically used by experienced drug users. Many people who are exposed to drugs in a medical setting end up misusing them. Some people misuse prescription drugs after surgery. Others start out with recreational opioid use, such as OxyContin pills sold online or on the street. Eventually, addiction becomes costly, and people may move up to more potent drugs. Many people who use heroin, Oxycontin and other opioids decide to try fentanyl, a much more potent drug.
Fentanyl addiction is dangerous and deadly. People can quickly become physically addicted, experiencing intense withdrawal symptoms if they cannot use an opioid. Withdrawal is the top reason many people resist getting sober from opioids. People who use fentanyl will have stronger withdrawal symptoms than those using a less potent drug.
Deciding on MAT Dosage For Fentanyl Users
When a person gets sober from opioids and enters a detox program, they are assessed by a clinician for detox symptoms. Yes, MAT can be successful for people addicted to higher-dose opioids. People who have used high doses of drugs such as heroin have still found relief and freedom from cravings using treatment drugs such as methadone, Suboxone or Naltrexone.
A doctor or nurse practitioner will help administer MAT and assess a patient for symptoms after they’ve been sober for 24 hours. There may need to be adjustments to the initial dose. All dosage decisions are made between the healthcare provider and the patient. Some patients will stay on MAT for the duration of their inpatient treatment. Others will stay on it indefinitely. The CDC has said MAT is safe to use for years. For this reason, most sober housing programs treat MAT like they do most medications.
Sober Housing and MAT
People who are sober and meet the requirements of sober housing programs often are on medication. MAT isn’t a big deal; programs are more about focusing on recovery. If you’re interested in sober housing, our program offers community, safety, and recovery in a serene and vibrant environment. Give us a
In May 2022, a three-year-old child died from fentanyl ingestion in a home in San Luis Obispo. Like many California overdoses, it took months to conduct a full medical examination. Police now say they have enough information on the child’s death to charge the mother criminally. Authorities have announced they plan to charge the child’s mother, 30-year-old Jennifer Mae Niemann, with reckless endangerment.
Fentanyl Overdose Incidents Among Children Becoming Common
On May 4, 2022, police responded to a phone call about a child that was turning blue and not breathing. Emergency personnel arrived and found the unresponsive child. EMTs from the fire department began lifesaving efforts and took the child to the hospital. However, all lifesaving efforts failed. He was pronounced dead later in the day. Toxicology results later showed the child had died from a fentanyl overdose.
Ms. Niemann, the child’s mother, was apparently careless with fentanyl, and due to her actions, the child got ahold of it, resulting in his death. So far, the police have not explained how the child got ahold of the fentanyl. It will likely come up at trial.
Drug overdose deaths involving children aren’t rare. They happen nationwide. They are almost always accidental. States as far away as Kansas had record overdoses for minors in 2020, with 16 teen deaths. Last September, a mother in Iowa was charged with murder when her 22-month-old child died of an overdose.
Ms. Niemann, the mother whose child died in her care in San Luis Obispo, is being held in county jail on four criminal charges. She is being charged with “child endangerment with great bodily injury, enhancement for causing great bodily injury during a commission of a felony, possession of a controlled substance (methamphetamine) and possession of a controlled substance (fentanyl).” Her bail has been set at half a million dollars.
Fentanyl Is a Deadly Drug
Fentanyl is one of the most potent pain medications in the medical industry. Yet it’s becoming more commonly used as a pain medication, party drug, or adulterant. Many people who ingest fentanyl don’t know that they’re taking it. Fentanyl has become a common adulterant among street drugs, especially drugs sold through anonymous apps. Fentanyl in California has been found in a myriad of drugs seized by police, including cocaine and Molly.
People have accidentally overdosed on fentanyl when they thought they were taking Molly, cocaine, and club drugs. For people who don’t use opioids, this can cause trouble breathing and can make their heart stop. Over 100,000 people died from opioid use disorder in 2021. The majority of these overdoses involved fentanyl. Many of them may have had fentanyl as a contaminant.
People who use opioids are at high risk for overdoses. Fentanyl is a potent drug and can cause significant withdrawal symptoms that make going “cold turkey” nearly impossible. A clinical detox, and treatment, including Medication-Assisted Treatment can help with these issues when a person first gets sober.
Getting Help, And Sober Housing
If you or somebody you love is addicted to fentanyl or other opioids, help is available. Treatment and detox can help you reclaim your life, and sober housing can give you stability.
Many people who go to drug detox and treatment choose sober housing as the next step in recovery. We offer safety, security, and community for you as you begin your journey in recovery. Give us a call at 760-216-2077 to learn more about our programs.
Fentanyl seizures at border continue to spike, according to the U.S. Department of Justice making San Diego a national epicenter for fentanyl trafficking. According to the DOJ release, more deadly fentanyl is being seized by border officials in San Diego and Imperial counties than at any of the nation’s 300-plus ports of entry, making this federal district an epicenter for fentanyl trafficking into the United States.
High Schools are Reporting Ever-Increasing Fentanyl Deaths
The San Diego Union Tribune reported recently about a California high school that made arrests after a student overdosed on fentanyl pills on campus during school. Notably the perpetrator used social media to market the pills. Using social media channels (like Snapchat) to market fentanyl laced pills is increasingly common, especially among teens, and often with predictably tragic effects
Fentanyl is Hyper-Potent and Deadly
Researchers have sounded an alarm for the past few years about the rise in overdose deaths involving fentanyl. The majority of overdoses now involve the drug, which is 50-100 times as powerful as Morphine. Overdoses that involve fentanyl are usually deadlier because of the potency of the drug.
For people who have an opioid use disorder, there are many risks to take when buying drugs. Regular drug supply chains are strained, and China has outlawed the manufacture of oxycodone (aka Oxycontin) and fentanyl. Because of this, chemists that rely on illicit drug sales have been offering fentanyl either as an adulterant or alternative to other opioids. Chinese drugmakers funnel fentanyl through the Mexico border, and from there, it makes its way into heroin, Oxy, and other street (and internet) drug dealers.
FENTANYL OVERDOSES ARE GETTING YOUNGER
Roneet Lev, an emergency room physician at Scripps Mercy Hospital in San Diego, California, told Bloomberg that most of the overdose deaths she’s seen in teens are accidental overdoses. One of her young patients, 14 years old, died from a fentanyl overdose.
“The problem is both supply and demand,” she said. “There’s already a lot of fentanyl coming into our market, and now we have a pandemic where people are isolated and not working, or not in school. These teenagers probably don’t have a substance use disorder, they’re experimenting, making a bad choice, and they end up dead.”
EDUCATION AND PREVENTION EFFORTS
Many cities and nonprofits say that harm reduction is an integral part of tackling the opioid epidemic. After all, many of the young people who are dying don’t even mean to take fentanyl. They often believe they’re taking a pill such as Percocet, Adderall, Ecstacy, etc. It may be the first time they have ever taken a drug at all.
Many law enforcement agencies are trying to get the word out about counterfeit pills and the dangers of fentanyl.
Some nonprofits offer fentanyl testing strips as a harm reduction measure that can test drugs for the presence of fentanyl. Then, the user can decide if they want to take it or flush it. Narcan, an overdose reversal drug, is also available to people who use opioids and other concerned community members. Carrying this drug can help reverse fatal overdoses, but when it’s a drug like fentanyl, reversal may require multiple doses of Narcan.
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Addiction is a problem throughout the country, and California is no exception. Much of the focus around the country has been placed on fentanyl use. After all, fentanyl overdoses outrank all other drug addiction deaths. However, meth addiction has been rising steadily in the past several years. As a result, overdoses have been increasing as well.
Meth’s Growing Popularity
Pop culture such as the popular show Breaking Bad has helped glorify meth use even as it portrayed characters stuck in horrific cycles of addiction. As pop culture brought a resurgence of popularity to meth, cartels have created more pure products as a result. This has made meth more addictive and more likely to cause an overdose.
According to the California Overdose Dashboard, deaths from illicit psychostimulants such as methamphetamine increased more than 250 percent between 2008 and 2015. California is, after all, a popular state to traffic drugs through. The Central Valley is considered one of the most active meth markets in the US. Some of the meth is manufactured in California, but now it is often more likely to have been made in Mexico and distributed through trafficking networks.
Meth and Fentanyl: A Fatal Combination
Drug dealers often use fentanyl as an adulterant to other drugs to make it more addictive or more potent. For inexperienced opioid users, this can be a fatal decision. It’s caused people to overdose on drugs like meth or cocaine more often. Combining uppers with downers is also more likely to cause a heart attack.
Many people who take meth with fentanyl don’t know that they’re doing it. However, some meth users also use other hard drugs like heroin or fentanyl.
Many harm reduction proponents recommend all drugs users consider acquiring Naloxone, an opioid reversal drug. Some people even use fentanyl testing strips to test for the presence of fentanyl in other drugs.
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